For the heavy metal band, see. [4][6][8] The illness may also recur after the initial outbreak. "[4] According to Jones, the effects resulting from MPI "can be difficult to differentiate from [those of] bioterrorism, rapidly spreading infection or acute toxic exposure. "Mass Psychogenic Illness: Role of the Individual Physician. [23][24], In August 2019 the BBC reported that schoolgirls at the Ketereh national secondary school (SMK Ketereh) in Kelantan, Malaysia, started screaming, with some claiming to have seen 'a face of pure evil'. Ali-Gombe, A. et al. [31][32][33], Refugee children in Sweden have been reported to fall into coma-like states on learning their families will be deported. Thousands were affected by the spread of a supposed illness in a province of Kosovo, exclusively affecting ethnic Albanians, most of whom were young adolescents. Terms of Use| [19] In the end, scientists were divided over the scale of the outbreak, whether it fully explains the many different symptoms and the scale to which sociogenic illness affected those involved. In Malaysian culture burial sites and trees are common settings for supernatural tales about the spirits of dead infants (toyol), vampiric ghosts (pontianak) and vengeful female spirits (penanggalan). [7], The DSM-IV-TR does not have specific diagnosis for this condition but the text describing conversion disorder states that "In 'epidemic hysteria', shared symptoms develop in a circumscribed group of people following 'exposure' to a common precipitant. of the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria contest Wesseley's definition and describe outbreaks with qualities of both mass motor hysteria and mass anxiety hysteria. The data collected were thought to be incompatible with organic theories and with the compromise theory of an organic nucleus. All Rights Reserved. Once accepted, they took vows of chastity and poverty. "[y]ou find a group of people getting sick, you investigate, you measure everything you can measure . to download free article PDFs, Inability to concentrate/trouble thinking. Radovanovic of the Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences Faculty of Medicine in Safat, Kuwait reports: This document did not satisfy either of the two ethnic groups. [34], In a 130 page report on the condition, commissioned by the government and published in 2006, a team of psychologists, political scientists and sociologists hypothesized that it was a culture-bound syndrome, a psychological illness endemic to a specific society. This technique was not effective and sometimes seemed to exacerbate the MPI outbreak. Clinical and laboratory findings were essentially negative. [11], Between the 15th and 19th centuries, instances of motor hysteria were common in nunneries. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Treatment for mass hysteria varies depending on the situation but may include separating the individuals involved and then addressing each person’s … Arch Intern Med. W. H. Phoon, Ministry of Labour in Singapore gives a case study of six outbreaks of MPI in Singapore factories between 1973 and 1978. Mass psychogenic illness (MPI), also called mass sociogenic illness, mass psychogenic disorder, epidemic hysteria, or mass hysteria, is "the rapid spread of illness signs and symptoms affecting members of a cohesive group, originating from a nervous system disturbance involving excitation, loss, or alteration of function, whereby physical complaints that are exhibited unconsciously have no corresponding organic aetiology". and when you still can't find any physical reason, you say 'well, there's nothing else here, so let's call it a case of MPI.'" The paucity of physical findings contrasts, Levine RJ. [9] They were characterized by (1) hysterical seizures of screaming and general violence, wherein tranquilizers were ineffective (2) trance states, where a worker would claim to be speaking under the influence of a spirit or jinn (or genie) and (3) frightened spells: some workers complained of unprecedented fear, or of being cold, numb, or dizzy. All Rights Reserved, 1984;144(10):1945-1946. doi:10.1001/archinte.1984.04400010053009, Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography, Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience, Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment, Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force. Schools and work places are recognized as illness-producing settings. The Tanganyika laughter epidemic of 1962 was an outbreak of laughing attacks rumored to have occurred in or near the village of Kanshasa on the western coast of Lake Victoria in the modern nation of Tanzania, eventually affecting 14 different schools and over 1000 people. The younger girls proved more susceptible, but disturbance was more severe and lasted longer in the older girls. [1], In 2017, some employees of the US embassy in Cuba reported symptoms (nicknamed the "Havana syndrome") attributed to "sonic attacks". Symptoms included swooning, moaning, chattering of teeth, hyperpnea, and tetany.

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